Views of Hadrat Sultan Bahoo (R.A) on moral development in social perspectives

By: Tauqir Aamir
Lecturer: Department of Social Work (University of Sargodha)

Hadrat Sultan Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul) was gifted by GOD, with full of intellectual and spiritual enlightenment. Hadrat Sultan Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul) did not have any primary education as he spent his all time in attaining spiritual experience and Divine truth.

Sultan, Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul) said,“Though, I haven’t received any formal education but after receiving Divine knowledge, I have become pure, that’s why the complete knowledge manifests in my heart through reflection”

Sultan Bahoo expressed his opinion in every section of human nature. Sultan Bahoo’s (Allah Bless His Soul) basic preamble was to highlight spiritually, but at the same time he also expresses his views on philosophy and social sciences. Hadrat Sultan Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul) Written about hundred and forty books and in all these books, Sultan Bahoo (R.A) advised three things with repeatedly. These are as under.

  • Obscurity
  • Desisting
  • To act upon the Shariah of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

He exhorted the pursuer of Truth four fundamentals and insisted that one should devote oneself to them to attain Truth. These practices involve.

  • Visualization of the image of Allah’s personal name (ALLAH).
  • Visualization of the image of the Holy Prophet’s name (MUHAMMAD).
  • Zikar of Kalma Tayyaba.
  • Remembrance of death and grave.

Moral Development in the light of Holy Quran, Ahadith and Kalam-E-Bahoo

Sultan Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul) is considered one of the greatest Sufi in the Indo-Pak Sub Continent belonging to Qadri Order he had determined the moral development in objectives of education in his poetry. We can easily dram conclusion from the Kalam of Sultan Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul) that “education is such a thing which enlightens the human conscience and makes him the upholder of truth. Education taught mannerism and makes its seekers aware of principles of life under the teachings of Islam.

It is the learners in these words. “Oh intelligent soul, if you are in yours senses then use your knowledge only for nobility, righteousness and nearness to God” Translated from, Qurab-E-Deedar, Page No. 124. Similarly he says in his book Qurb-E-Deedar, “The Purpose of education is to attain nearness to God and enlighten the human conscience. Those who get knowledge for worldly fame, they are without conscience”.

Allah almighty says that in the Quran: 27-Alzariat-56:

And that I have created Jinn and human for the sake of my worship.

Even Holy Prophet (PBUH) says

He who got knowledge to earn wealth he is infidel, he who got knowledge in order to cavil (taunt, objection) he is hypocrite and he who got knowledge to get happiness and pleasure of God he is a Muslim

Sultan Bahoo regards hearth of the “Momin” and says

(Oh! Seeker! Your body is the housed Allah if you see inside, you don’t need to ask Hadrat Khizar for water of aliveness you have a spring of water of aliveness inside your”).

According to Sultan Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul) a student should possess six qualities.1. Faith 2. Self-belief. 3.Honesty. 4.Truthfulness 5. Desire 6. Love. (Kaleed-Al- Tauheed, page-891). In these qualities, he had more emphasized on morality. He says that the development of morality in the students interlinked with the practical life of the teacher.

If a teacher’s sayings are not in accordance to his actions then he is not in a position to enhance morality in his students. According to Sultan Bahoo (R.A), morality is the basic element for the successfulness of teaching and learning. The contents of education in the Sufi system of education were for enlighten human conscience and makes him upholder of truth about mannerism and character building.

Sultan Bahoo (R.A) says,

By rolling beads heart is not awakened what use is holding beads Hoo?
Acquired knowledge without respect what is gained from such knowledge’s seeds Hoo
Remaining in solitude nothing is achieved what is the point of solitudes you complete Hoo
Milk will not set without setting agent (Jaag) ‘Bahoo’ even to red if you heat Hoo.

He clearly said the content of education must foster the practical activities this is also in accordance to actual spirit of Islam. The process of teaching and learning in Islamic perspectives is to train the next generation to develop morals and noble qualities along with professional development. The Sufi system of education was in accordance to Islam. In an Islamic system of education, the role of the teacher is three-fold,

  • To prepare and motivate the pupil to be clean and receptive in intention and attention.
  • To impart knowledge of the ‘Book’ (the text, the subject matter).
  • And to enable the learner to comprehend the meaning, purpose and the wisdom to the knowledge

So acquired. The Quran has underlined these three main aspects of the role of the Prophet (PBUH) as teacher (Wa yuzakkeehim wa yu’allimhum al-Kitab wa al-hikmah) (Surah Al-Jummah, Verse 2):

God is who has sent to the unlettered Arab community a Messenger from their midst to relate and recite to them. His revelations and to impart sanctity to their quality and their actions, to teach them the Quran and impart to them the knowledge of its authoritative text to teach them the wisdom of judging rightly in matters, relating to life and conduct and to be in full accordance with fact, reason and good sense, and to teach them sound judgment in the choice of means and ends not withstanding that they were before, ignorant adherent of evidently false beliefs.

We can conclude that intellectual and spiritual development is dependent on the morality. Morality is the way to explore the intellectual and spiritual abilities in the learner and because of this reason, Sufis have more focused on morality in their teaching learning process so the teaching and learning process in the Sufi system of education was based on the developing morality in the learners. As Islam has more emphasized on the morality.

Sufism has concentrate all its educational efforts on opening the heart, enlightening its darkness and making it soft after being hard, closed and blind. Sufi spiritual mentors, may GOD be pleased with them as specialists in the “medicine of hearts” (tibib ul-qoloob), orient the hearts of their companions to Allah and reconnect them to their original state of purity and light. “Hearts become softer with the remembrance of Allah”.

Qur’an remembering Allah in the Sufi path is supported by some necessary educational methods, varying from the companionship of a spiritual mentor to individual and collective invocation and mediation. Companionship of a spiritual mentor is very important in purifying the heart, putting I into communication with Allah after it has been blind without any connection for developing morality in the learners.

In Ahdith Qudsi Allah Says:

“La yassoni ardi wala samai, wala kin yassoni fe qalb-e-abdil momin”

Sultan Bahoo (R.A) says:
Hearts are deeper then the oceans who would know about hearts Hoo
Within it are ships, boats, bargepoles and seamen lots Hoo
Stretched like tent fourteen realms are within the hearts slots Hoo
The one who is acquainted with heart ‘Bahoo’ such will attain Rabb’s recognition Hoo

Sufis pays special attention on the acquisition of education. The four major Sufi traditions in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent always promote the process of teaching and learning the wisdom in Islamic perspectives to explore the mysteries of nature, enhance moral development to become nearer to Allah. For this purpose they established the education institutes, formulated the objectives and content of education. There was a specific criteria for getting admissions in the Sufis institutes of learning. Sufis have wonderfully discussed the characteristics of good teachers and students and have explained the assessment procedure for the students.

Sultan Bahoo also says that:

Adopt such murshid kamil, who presents happiness in both worlds Hoo
Firstly eradicates the fear of earning then shows me the path toward Rabb Hoo
Turn this wall of saline earth into pure silver Hoo
Such murshid who is unable to do anything here ‘Bahoo’ he gives false hopes. Hoo.

Conclusion

Sultan Bahoo (R.A) has described the six qualities of a student for his shyness of morality including faith, truthfulness, self belief, honesty, trust, desire, love and honestly. These characteristics are responsible to make him the student on the right path and always searching truth and peace in accordance to Islam. He says that a true teacher should be a source of inspiration for his students and he should create moral development and enlightenment among his students. According to him morality of learners in interlinked with moral reflections in the practical life of the teacher.

A true teacher also keeps himself away from greed and other bad characteristics. According to Sultan Bahoo (Allah Bless His Soul), a good teacher should guide his students towards the path of Allah. He says that a false teacher is like a prostitute who always talks about money with others.

He further says that false teacher is like a butcher, who draws out liquid from bones for making money, the assessment procedure of students in the four traditions was the same. All the Sufis assessed and evaluated their students learning and achievement with the observing their practical life that whether they have become same to us or not.

References:

  • Annotated descriptions of these works can be found in Sayyed Ahmad Saeed Hamdani, Ahwalval-umaqamat-I Hadhrat Sultan Bahoo, edited by Hafiz M. Afzal Faqir (Islamabad: Islamic Book Foundation, 1991). Mas’ud Qurayshi, trans, Naqsh-I Bahoo: Hadhrat Sultan Bahoo ka farsi kalam aur urdu tarjima (Islamabad: Lok Virsa, n.d).
  • Bhatnagar R.S (1984): Dimension of Classical Sufi thoughts: Narendra Prakash Jain, Delhi.
  • Nasir, Suued H. (ed.), Islamic Spirituality: Foundations, Vol, 19, The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1991.
  • William Stoddert, (1999). Sufism the Mustical Doctrines and Methods of Islam. Suhail Academy. Lahore.
  • www.sultanbahoo.net